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California's Central Valley is home to about five Kaiser-affiliated hospitals, offering emergency and other medical services 24 hours a day, seven cslifornia a week. West Lancaster, CA Driving directions References Kaiser Permanente: Quick Facts. Written by Max Stirner. Max Stirner is a New York-based writer and editor with over a decade of experience. Richmond, CA 1 0.

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To browse Academia. Filipe X. The knowledge about where, when and why do fires start is essential to assure appropriate fire policy and management. The ability to understand and predict the patterns of fire ignitions will help managers and decision makers to improve the effectiveness of fire prevention, detection and fire fighting resources allocation.

This chapter starts by giving an overview of the patterns of fire occurrence in Europe. Then we present a more detailed analysis of key factors driving fire ignitions based on some case studies, and we conclude by making some remarks concerning implications for management. James R Kates. Paola Perez. Janette Bulkan. Davide Ascoli , Guido Sanesi , V. This review presents a multidisciplinary framework for integrating the ecological, regulatory, procedural and technical aspects of forest management for fi res prevention under Mediterranean environments.

The aims are to: i provide a foreground of wildfi re scenario; ii illustrate the theoretical background of forest fuel management; iii describe the available fuel management techniques and mechanical operations for fi re prevention in forest and wildland-urban interfaces, with exemplifi cation of case-studies; iv allocate fi re prevention activities under the hierarchy of forest planning.

The review is conceived as an outline commentary discussion targeted to professionals, technicians and government personnel involved in forestry and environmental management. Alejandra Morgendorffer. Heidi Renninger. Max Valentinuzzi. Soap bubbles, rubber balloons, and distended bellies have been seen and experienced by men over centuries giving them the idea of tension and eventually the feeling of blowing out, until someone found a physicomathematical explanation to close the loop from practical to theoretical knowledge and so making a few guys happy, which does not mean at all that the inflated sensation will not show up again and that cattle in the country will not be treated with a stab in the tummy by a would-be-veterinary-doctor to relieve bloat.

Peter Wallbrink. Sofia Bajocco. Chen , Zhanpeng Jin. Diego Azqueta. Talal Rahwan. Daniel Moya. Davide Ascoli.

Kevin C Ryan. Darrell Ross , Thomas Quigley. Peter Robichaud. Ingrid Martin , Wade E. John Clague. Narciso Gonzalez Vega , Simon Kozina. Bair , Douglas Rideout. Jorge Mataix-Solera. Bonnie Spring. Poulomi Ganguli , J. Klausner , Geoffrey Short.

Horace Mitchell. David N Bengston. Stephanie Snyder. Joy Drohan. Ivan da Costa Marques. Francisco Manuel Cardoso Castro Rego. Julian Murphet. Atta ur Rehman Khan. Susie Belal. Cees van Westen. Joseph J. Madhusanka Liyanage. Lindon Pronto. Ivo Flammer. Naomi Smethurst , Thomas D Andrews. Alexis L Waldron. Malia K H Akutagawa. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. Remember me on this computer.

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Living with Fire. Hoang Thanh.

Abstract the wildlife. Related Papers. Towards Integrated Fire … 2. Anesthetic Buffering new advances for use in dentistry. News from Guyana. CFA Newsletter, September Integrated forest management to prevent wildfires under Mediterranean environments. Forest Ecology and Management Climate change and fire management in the mid-Atlantic region.

Journal of Hydrology Effects of differing wildfire severities on soil wettability and implications for hydrological response.

Moritz and This proponent of experimental work the desk of necessity Scott Gabriel Knowles nonetheless loved organismal description.

Henry Petroski Laura J. Shown here burning out of control on June 26, three days after the fire began, it ultimately lasted 18 days, blazing through more than 18, acres of public and private land, destroying homes, and killing two people. Moritz and historian Scott Gabriel Knowles describe the state of research on safety and damage prevention in the face of wildfires, dispelling common misconceptions that they say may be holding back proactive policy and contributing to reactively fighting fires.

The authors pose solutions that they think could save lives, homes, and taxpayer money. Photograph by R. I Editor-in-Chief Jamie L. Powell party leapt from his disabled vehicle and led Managing Editor Fenella Saunders the scene.

I quickly pulled over and dialed Digital Features Editor Katie L. Ackerman, hended the suspect. Art Director Barbara J. Nemeth in They describe it as a behavior that occurs when the presence of others discourages an individual from intervening in an emergency situation. Box deforestation-related mudslides to plummeting biological diversity—are dire. As key sources President Tee Guidotti of useful information related to environmental management, scientists and engi- Treasurer Ronald Millard neers can play a special role as educators and problem solvers.

President-Elect Stuart L. Nemeth searchers to use in leading this effort. Research has shown that the Society fosters interaction among science, technology, and society; encourages appreciation observing prosocial behavior can motivate others to do the same. In other words, and support of original work in science and heroism is potentially contagious.

For the sake of preserving our planet, the scientiic community can be the example we all need. But because ozone is a good prerequisite for life. For example, on Earth ation is more complicated than Earth we receive blackbody radiation from Dr.

Heng responds: radiating as a kelvin blackbody, the Sun at 5, kelvin and radiate because sources of absorption and scat- blackbody radiation out to space at Dr. Howard touches on a point that has tering from both gaseous and aerosol kelvin. Net energy gain or loss is been explored extensively in the astro- species need to be taken into account roughly zero because we are in ther- physical literature: the climatic effects to properly compute the atmospheric mal equilibrium, but life builds or- arising from variations in the incident temperatures.

It is probably an over- dered systems using the difference in flux associated with different types of simplification to imagine that life entropy between the two reservoirs. It stars. For a recent example, see the is more likely in environments that follows that a planet orbiting a redder June article by S. Rugheimer and have larger temperature gradients. A star would be more limited in capac- colleagues in The Astrophysical Journal. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic or electronic process, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or otherwise copied, with the exception of one-time noncommercial, personal use, without written permission of the publisher.

Second-class postage paid at Durham, NC, and additional mailing office. Postmaster: Send change of address form to Sigma Xi, P. Canadian publications mail agreement no.

Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to P. You can help in search of Amelia Earhart! On board the Reef Endeavour 1 You can join us yourself. Spencer and managing editor on Facebook ger than ive years takes patience, Fenella Saunders talk about how facebook. Follow us on Twitter Beans highlights ecologists who twitter.

Studying these differences Katie L. Explore earliest evolution of life on Earth. Some thoughts, although its magnetic activity. Some time ago article in Astrobiology by A. Segura and The Astrophysical Journal Letters. An- I was asked by a New York City driver others. Indeed, New Yorkers environments beyond that of Earth.

After determining the a change from red to the intermediate ellite stations, most likely in Hawaii, formula for Y, the minimum yellow- half red and half yellow before the Alaska, and the Caribbean Islands, light time, I realized that its value green light, a sequence often seen in and perhaps other locations.

He went depends critically on two quite ques- Europe. This series alerts drivers to on to say that he had never heard of tionable parameters: the braking time be ready to go when the light is green, me and had no idea why a geodesist and the reaction time.

In particular, the so traffic flows as soon as the light is thought that he could run an astro- latter—the time from perceiving the green, permitting more cars to pass nomical observing program. As an yellow signal to pressing the brake— through the intersection. Although had come. Because he had mentioned M. Jefferies, director of the Institute for ference does imply that yellow-light A Crusty Englishman Astronomy, University of Hawaii, and times set nominally at three seconds To the Editors: told him that I had worked for him, in New York City are in fact less than building a lunar laser ranging station the minimum.

Michael I. That set him reminded me of two techniques that polar motion, variations in universal off on a rant about minor university I no longer see in the United States. This se- tion Analysis by Radio Interferomet- tional project, that all decisions would quence does not require more lights ric Surveying , a collaboration with be made by the appropriate National and provides more time to prepare for NASA and the U.

With that said, he picked up his accent and smoothed down his hair drink and left. Page Barbara Aulicino I went to the lounge after dinner.

I am pleased to learn that he made He came in, carrying a mixed drink, significant contributions to radio as- Infographic and sat down in an overstuffed chair tronomy during his time at NRAO— Page Andy Brunning across a coffee table from me.

Find- unfortunately, I only experienced his G. When I responded that the Brief letters commenting on articles baselines would not be long enough appearing in the magazine are wel- to get the Earth orientation parameters comed. The editors reserve the right as accurately as we were seeking, and to edit submissions.

Please include that we also wanted stations on sev- an email address if possible. Address: eral different tectonic plates, he har- Letters to the Editors, P. Box , rumphed again and told me that the Research Triangle Park, NC or array would eventually include sat- editors amscionline.

In evolutionary biology, such a mix- ture of features is known as an anatom- ical mosaic. Paleoanthropologists have learned over the past century that The Rising Star cave system, part of of the next generation.

We were able to human evolution was not a gradual the Cradle of Humankind World Heri- accept applications from more than 30 progression from a very apelike an- tage Site in South Africa, has been well early-career scientists, representing 15 cestor to modern humans. Our small mapped and was explored by cavers countries and 5 continents. The high canine teeth and more upright posture for many years, but without any fos- level of commitment of this team of spe- evolved very early in our lineage, our sils being noted there.

That changed cialists allowed us to develop an initial pattern of bipedal walking next. At the in September , when two South understanding of the overall sample midpoint of our evolutionary tree, an- African cavers, Rick Hunter and Steve within two years of its discovery. The session gave an op- stone tools. Only then did they devel- African paleoanthropologist Lee Berger, portunity for 13 members of our team, op the kind of social sharing that led to hoping to identify new cave settings mostly early-career scientists, to pres- language, which today characterizes with evidence of our fossil ancestors ent ongoing and unpublished work to people around the world.

The brain and relatives. Berger quickly organized colleagues from around the world. We evolved late, the legs early, and every an excavation to explore the contents aimed to provide a comprehensive view species in our ancestry has its own mo- of the extremely difficult-to-access site, of the biology of this new species, with saic of features from this legacy.

This re- with this storyline. Nowhere is that ileged to be a member of the scientific search begins to address the big ques- more evident than at its hand, arm, and team investigating the find. The remote tions about H.

The overall pat- the new species H. The spe- the first chapter of a long scientific story. At the same But it has a much smaller Representatives of Homo naledi stood between and time, we tried to broaden the set of peo- brain size than is typi- centimeters tall, but had a brain that was quite small for ple involved in the description of new cal of these species. In this this size. Also, their teeth more closely resemble those of hominin fossils, by including members and several aspects of its earlier hominin species.

Image courtesy of John Hawks. Tracy Kivell of the University of Kent reported on the combination of a wrist and fingertips more humanlike than those of H. Both match well to the thorax anatomy considered 1, meters by Scott Williams of New York Univer- Dinaledi Chamber 10 meters sity, with a narrowed upper rib cage. The chamber is accessed only through a series of steep, twisting, The legs of H.

The Superman's Crawl and the Dragon's Back are each less than 25 cen- comparatively slender, with some evi- timeters in diameter. Illustration adapted from P. Dirks et al, eLife , 4:e Striking- Walker of Duke University. However, had hands well made for handling and ly, the Dinaledi Chamber contains no Caroline VanSickle of the University of manipulating objects, and had teeth other medium or large animals other Wisconsin—Madison reported that the that indicate a high-quality diet—all than hominins.

This situation makes hips substantially share an anatomical things that link the species to our ge- it a treasure for understanding their pattern with the much-shorter-statured nus. Yet, it had a trunk, hips, shoul- anatomy, but it creates challenges in Lucy skeleton. Zach Throckmorton ders, and fingers that contrast with interpreting the context and age of the of Lincoln Memorial University took that picture, and it had a brain similar assemblage.

The team has published on the task of building this mixture of in size to those of some of the earli- data showing that the bones bear no features into an overall picture of H.

Our best body size and development. Heather In many ways hypothesis is that H. We planned a half-hour question- and centimeters in stature, human, without and-answer session at the end of the with males and females differing only symposium session, facilitated by team slightly in size. She emphasized that anything like a members Steven E. Churchill of Duke H.

Debra Bolter of Modesto Junior human brain. University and Darryl J. It was one of College in California showed analysis the most interesting periods of open of a range of individuals of different Further context for H. People offered a broad the fossil deposit, from infants through the site of its discovery. Marina Elliott, range of perspectives about the H.

This sample is excep- a postdoctoral scholar at the Univer- ledi fossils, the site, and our open-access tional in our evolutionary record for sity of Witwatersrand in Johannes- philosophy regarding the data. But dur- preserving the anatomy of all life stages burg, reported on continuing work ing the discussion, one question was from one population. Further research aimed at understanding the context of posed above all others: How will we be on the growth and development of the fossils.

She is now leading excava- able to figure out the age of the fossils? Most oth- deposit. This approach was taken part- sults presented at the April sympo- er fossil sites in South Africa include ly out of necessity, because of the lack www. Images courtesy of John Hawks. But also, we recognized grow where water flows down walls covery, would immediately be avail- that the placement of a species into the or floors in caves. We are also using able on MorphoSource as well. These family tree of organisms, or its phylo- some destructive mechanisms to ex- technological developments could be genetic position, is one that depends amine the bones and teeth themselves.

High-resolution scans of many of the Meanwhile, more investigators have Still, the question of its age is a fas- key H. Churchill reported in the symposium to be published over whether it coexisted with any other that thousands of people around the the next year.

We were able to re- world have downloaded scans for 3D port that we are working on deter- printing, making their own copies of John Hawks is the Vilas-Borghesi Distinguished mining the geological age of the fos- these fossils.

At a lecture following the Achievement Professor of Anthropology at the sil deposit, applying techniques that symposium, Berger announced that University of Wisconsin—Madison. Michael Spencer right , an electrical engineer and computer scientist at Cornell University and a Sigma Xi Distinguished Lecturer, works on power generation with relatively low-energy radioactive sources. Spencer explained what these so-called betavoltaic devices are, and why they are now gaining popularity, to managing editor Fenella Saunders.

What is a betavoltaic device? What is the history of betavoltaic Everybody knows what photovoltaics use in medical devices? Betavoltaics are a direct out of promethium, another beta emit- analogy to that, but instead of photons, ter, and these batteries were used to they absorb high-energy electrons that power pacemakers in patients.

These are the product of radioisotope decay. What materials release these high- producer, and when the electrons de- energy electrons? The more bulky. As you into titanium, where it bonds with the vices different from these older ones? On the high-energy beta electrons. You place duce any radiation, so the shielding re- other hand, a betavoltaic device nat- that right against your detector.

Also urally scales to the smaller dimen- the size of the pacemaker has shrunk sions. Lithium batteries are not very How easily can these high-energy and the amount of power it requires is good when the temperature changes, particles be shielded?

You can have a miniature solar Are there any devices that already benefit, particularly when you need a cell, or a piezoelectric scavenger that use these isotopes? The electronics in- resort that would keep the computer fire. Other produced radioisotope dustry now knows how to make ex- processor alive. Then you would use devices are used in gun sights, and quisitely low-power electronics. In ad- the sources when they came online, in signs for environments that can- dition, as in the case of the pacemaker, when somebody turned the light on not tolerate open flame or spark.

The the footprint of devices has shrunk. What advantage does that structuring give the betavoltaic? Unlike solar cells, your energy source is right next to you, this titanium trit- ide. To increase the power for these betavoltaic devices, you create a larger surface area. Etching the surface puts more fuel on a given area of a device by a factor of a hundred, and in prin- ciple could increase the power by two orders of magnitude.

What are some additional potential applications for these betavoltaics? Another interesting application is anti- The more surface area available on a betavoltaic device, the larger the power output it can tampering.

Suppose you had a box of produce from receiving high-energy electrons emitted during radioisotope decay. Pattern- electronics that you didn't want people ing the detector materials with microscopic pillars or combs is one approach to increasing to look at. You need something that the overall surface area.

Images courtesy of Michael Spencer. Mak- and then trigger an alarm. For that, a able to do the things that they do best. But the graphic key electronically, again you used as batteries? If you with almost no power output. But the power is al- only wanted to read it out once every a good application for a betavoltaic ways coming out, so you could capture two weeks, you could probably store device as well.

Then you could still have that you could read out in a couple of When could these devices be com- that power for another time. Say you have an application where in two weeks of work.

We specialize in hands-on, applied science kits designed specifically for learners age 8 to adult. Visit us today at ScientificsOnline. These sperm were editor Katie L. Scientists in China www. But to do so in humans will New Primate Fossils in Asia require an extended process of scrutiny.

Human somatic cells sub- logical, biological, or synthetic settings. Quantum tunnel- rather than in Asia, where primates features. Scientific Reports 6: April 26 ing of water in beryl: A new state of the originated. At the end of the Eocene water molecule. Physical Review Letters epoch, 34 million years ago, the world Computer Model of Planet Nine April 22 turned colder and drier, and many In January, research on the movement primate species became extinct or mi- of objects in the Kuiper Belt at the Solar Eukaryote Without Mitochondria grated southward.

But climate shift. However, there has been at the University of Bern in Switzerland a new study describes such cells without a knowledge gap about how primates tried out size estimates and possible this defining trait, thought to be essen- fared in Asia. Although anthropoids orbits to see what best fit current data. These new and that its effective temperature should for mitochondrial markers, a research primate fossils indicate that a lemur-like be about 47 kelvins.

The researchers say team at the University of British Colum- lineage then became dominant in Asia. Other eukaryotes the low chances of detecting the planet, need mitochondria to convert food to Ni, X. Li, L. Li, and K. Oligo- because their temperature estimate sug- energy and also to form vital iron-sulfur cene primates from China reveal divergence gests that it does not solely rely on the proteins.

Most energy generation uses between African and Asian primate evolu- Sun for warmth, but also derives heat oxygen, but this anaerobic organism tion. Science — May 6 from its core. Nevertheless, astronomer appears to produce ATP a molecule for Mike Brown, who originally proposed the energy Skin Cells Turned into Sperm planet, is confident he will observe it and storage in Researchers in Spain have induced hu- is applying for time with the Subaru tele- the cyto- man skin cells to become immature scope to do so.

Planet Nine will not be an plasm in sperm in vitro, a technique that eventu- official planet until it is directly observed. To achieve the reprogramming, Linder, E. Evolution and several Dr.

Naoji Yubuki the team introduced two cell types in magnitudes of candidate Planet Nine. The team thinks that an ancestor of water was observed in a quantum tun- the parasite procured systems to form neling state unlike a liquid, solid, or gas, the proteins through horizontal gene demonstrating how the substance can transfer, a direct deposit of genes from perform in ultraconfinement in rocks, one organism to another.

Some closely soil, or cell walls. After confining water related species have few mitochondria, in nanoscale tubes of the mineral beryl, suggesting that this organism lost the physicists at Oak Ridge National Labora- organelle through evolution rather than stimulate the expression of six genes tory observed the molecules in quantum being ancestral to all eukaryotes. The motion: The oxygen and hydrogen atoms cells, taken from men, then began ex- were delocalized, meaning they were si- Karnkowska, A.

A eukaryote without pressing markers for these germline cells, multaneously in six positions in the tubes. Current Biology and some divided by meiosis, resulting The observation of tunneling of water is doi A quarter-turn view shows how the turbulence in the oxygenated fuel jet gray affects the burning flame blue.

But the flame remains stable; it does not burn farther up or recede down the fuel jet. So thick smoke. Cleaning them up—and tracing this species colored yellow to red shows making them even more efficient— the rate of low-temperature chemical reactions, presents a real challenge because understanding which are key to the eventual flame ignition.

Trac- how they burn fuel is hard: Diesel engines operate ing the products of high-temperature combustion— at high pressures and temperatures that are too including the hydroxyl radical OH colored blue to harsh and burn fuel too fast for the accurate mea- green —shows the location of the flame.

Researchers at Sandia National disrupting effects of high-velocity turbulence. With only 2 carbon atoms per molecule, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Once the data combustion products, or species, and modeling were downloaded, though, Yu rendered this image how they break up and where they virtually go re- in about a second on his graphics workstation: a quires a supercomputer.

Using Oak Ridge National consumer-grade desktop computer. Although physics and electrical engineering at the perstition. Unusual events in the the first investigations were carried out College of New Jersey now Princeton natural world were probed for hidden mainly by means of visual observations University , receiving his science degree meanings; an occurrence as remarkable and photography, and later by quantita- in This academic background put as a total eclipse of the Sun must, it was tive measurements, ultimately it was a him in good stead when he was invit- thought, be an omen of some sort.

It series of little-known paintings by the ed to join the U. Although he a painter in the court of Catherine de that provided the missing piece of the had never yet seen an eclipse, he drew Medici, depicted the scene of a solar puzzle needed to fulfill this goal.

The ecuted them with the same artistic abil- painting now hangs in the J. Paul Getty Visual Perception Captured by Art ity he used to paint other transient phe- Museum in Los Angeles under the title When it comes to the scholarly investi- nomena. Why is with a consensus among research- ings captured what the eye saw, more the distribution of brightness in the pho- ers that the appearance of a luminous credibly than any other depictions ei- tographs different from that portrayed area encircling the darkened body of ther before or since, thanks to his un- by Butler?

Why are the streamers of the the Sun—the corona—was in fact the usual talents. Normally invisible to of being able to paint from memory tograph displaying the globular coro- earthbound observers, this atmosphere what he had glimpsed for only a brief na? Between painting and photograph, could be seen during solar eclipses only time—such as landscapes during sun- which—if either—representation is true?

He also To answer these questions, there must be painted portraits, his best-known sub- a standard set of criteria that can be ap- ject being the eminent philanthropist plied in each case, along with the prem- Richard Woo is a senior research scientist and industrialist Andrew Carnegie.

Because quantitative dynamics of solar and planetary atmospheres he developed a system of shorthand measurements represent the true bright- and the use of spacecraft radio signals to probe sketching to record particular colors, ness, they are essential for understand- them. For instance, a useful quantitative way of representing how white light is distributed throughout an image is with isophotes, or contours along which bright- ness is constant, like the lines of constant elevation on a topographic map.

An ex- ample appears on the lower left of page in the image of the globular corona of the solar eclipse and its correspond- ing isophotes. That recent solar eclipse is chosen because by then isophotes were being more accurately measured than they had been in earlier eclipses. When the isophotes are superposed on the globular corona, the isophote closest to the boundary matches the shape of the corona.

This is to be ex- pected, because the perceived shape of the corona is determined by the thresh- old sensitivity of brightness, and the isophote closest to the shape identifies its level. When less light is captured in an image made with a shorter expo- sure time, the imaged corona shrinks, but its shape continues to match the relevant isophotes at lower altitude. Representing brightness in terms of isophotes reveals another key quantita- tive property of the white-light corona that is not evident from the image itself.

Its brightness falls steeply with radial distance from the disk of the Sun. With the limited dynamic range of photographic imaging, the brightness of the inner corona of an image showing the extended corona is saturated. Still, the coincidence between the shape of the outer corona where it is not satu- rated and isophotes at all altitudes vali- The study of solar eclipses—beautiful, baffling, and rare occurrences in nature—has a long dates the globular corona as represent- history, with the frames of reference varying from the mystic to the religious to the scientific.

One may wonder, then, why isophotes cannot be discerned in the shape of the Brightness adaptation comes at a in the visual field: No wonder it copes corona painted by Butler. This appar- cost.

We can discriminate changes in with this challenge by forming an illu- ent contradiction arises from the physi- daylight and among shades of dark- sion. The question then becomes, What cal constraints underlying our sense of ness when we view them separately, is the nature of the illusion? The human eye and brain have but when they appear next to each oth- an enormous dynamic range, which al- er, our ability to discriminate changes Artifacts of Processed Images lows us to see on a sunny day and also simultaneously is much smaller than An answer to this question emerged in moonlight, but they can achieve this the adaptation range.

Without being encounter an object such as the corona parently came close to functioning like consciously aware of this phenomenon, with more than two orders of magni- the human visual system. The Newkirk we nevertheless take it into account tude of simultaneous dynamic range of camera is equipped with radially graded when we walk from a well-lit lobby into brightness.

Confronted by such an ex- filters to compensate for the steep ra- a dark movie theater and wait for our traordinary sight, the priority of the eye dial falloff in brightness. Left to right: photograph of the same event taken by astronomer G. McAlpin; center. More recently the Newkirk camera, equipped with radially Royal Astronomical Society of Canada; High Altitude Observatory, graded filters, has fortuitously managed to mimic the workings of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.

The apparent jagged shape sion in visual perception. The insight provided by the Newkirk Moreover, the striking resemblance of camera into how the naked eye sees the corona is invaluable. By showing how the streamers are formed, it reveals the workings of the optical illusion. This outcome is not too surprising, because the purpose of the Newkirk camera is to capture the large dynamic range of brightness of the corona in a single ex- posure by suppressing the brighter in- ner corona—a goal apparently similar to that of visual perception.

Artifact But Not Illusion Coronal streamers are not the only ar- tifact of the processed image. Another is the so-called coronal holes that often N appear at the poles as dark regions at E the base of the corona, extending and diverging with increasing height. The An unmarked photograph of the solar eclipse Newkirk camera apparently suppresses of March 29, , shows that the white-light the brightness of the inner corona to An image of the white-light corona on Janu- distribution of the corona is globular in shape the point where it is not detected in the ary 17, , taken by the ground-based High and brightest at its inner edges top.

The gra- Altitude Observatory Mauna Loa coronameter, coronal holes, on account of inadequate dations of brightness of the light can be delin- reproduces the artifacts of diverging polar coro- eated in terms of isophotes, superimposed on brightness sensitivity of the image.

When the photograph bottom like the contour lines When the brightness of the processed brightness and contrast are enhanced bottom , on a topographic map. Reprinted from R. The origin and evolution of the solar wind were deduced from radio occultation measurements made by the Ulysses space mission, the first spacecraft to use radio measurements to define the spatial distribution of electron density, and hence brightness, in the tenuous polar regions of the corona.

Although the radio results from the Ulysses mission were robust and unambiguous, they were surprisingly at odds with prevailing views of the solar wind, as discussed in my article with Shadia Habbal in American Scientist. When I participated in my first solar eclipse expedition, in India in , what surprised me most was that pictures taken by a personal camera did not look at all like those in textbooks.

Two decades later, I was equally surprised to find that clarifying the relations among visual perception, photographic the globular corona. After decades of imaging, and physical measurements led to the exposure of a long-hidden coronal imaging, it is surprising to learn error in the scientific view of the solar wind that was current at the time. In- Should you have the good fortune to witness the upcoming total stead, they show up only in processed solar eclipse, the first of this century to be visible in the United States, take images—that is, those that have been a few quick pictures with your personal camera or smartphone.

Your photos processed to adjust the brightness—or else as a consequence of the selected ra- will capture a globular corona just like those seen a century ago. You will dially graded filter. Thus, they are an not see the glamor of the coronal holes or streamers that appear in many artifact in two ways, being both human- astronomical photos, but do not be disappointed—in terms of brightness produced and human-selected.

Spend the rest of your time searching for In the words of perceptual psycholo- coronal holes in the inner corona. Il- havior, the trick the eye plays with the brain remains a delight. The ability to recognize this and to ex- clude coronal holes from its illusion at- tests to the power of human perception. Bibliography Butler, H. Painting eclipses and lunar landscapes.

Carbon, C. Understanding human perception by human-made illusions. Fron- tiers in Human Neuroscience 8, article Sinclair, R. Howard Russell Butler: Painter extraordinary of solar eclipses.

Cul- ture and Cosmos — Woo, R. Coronal streamers revealed dur- ing solar eclipses: Seeing is not believing, and pictures can lie. Perception of solar eclipses cap- tured by art explains how imaging mis- represented the source of the solar wind. Michael Zeiler www. Robert Louis Chianese A s I crossed the channel the crew and I were left with a boat- rands that way too; and as a drought- from Ventura, California, to load of them covering the whole conscious Californian I should empty Channel Islands National deck, sometimes two deep, with every full drain bucket from our kitch- Park on a misty morning not one person taking even one en sink outside on our plants, but I a year ago, I recognized that our ex- home.

The sport Collectively, these acts have profound waters. I approached him and asked was lost in wasting these animals. Scien- whether he had given up fishing. He I kept it up for a while, but then tists warn that we are already experi- said he had, and explained why: I saw we were taking too many of encing some of the effects of human- all fishes. Nice people out for a day and an increased frequency of extreme of fishing kept bringing in more weather events.

I did that too, when we had a good run. I would transformed offenders. Do we need more sta- tistics, more fact-based warnings, more keep the biggest ones and give smaller climate science, more news coverage?

That was rather sneaky. I made sure of that. I suggest we try a new tactic to inspire The captain continued: Still, I had had it, those boatloads the public to take action: Make it person- of jumbo squid.

I stopped fishing. Not because of a regula- to sober environmentalist, all of it con- was too much. Few people took tion. Not because of being lectured or veyed in his tone as much as through them home, so when it was over, shamed.

He did it on his own, in a way the story itself. Indeed, but telling a former customer what had I had myself given up fishing for very changed him, and the brief rapport be- Robert Louis Chianese is professor emeritus of similar reasons. Every own story of becoming disturbed about for the Advancement of Science, Pacific Division , the only humanities professor selected day, we commit assaults against the wasting our precious ocean resources.

He sponsors environment, both large and small. I do it, too: I us in, tying us to the specifics of the char- humanities-science connections. His forthcoming still eat meat, including fish; I bought acter and the situation in a way that me- collection of original poetry, Science-Inspired a new hybrid but have an old truck dia coverage of abuses against nature of- Poems, includes science-inspired art from various for fun a case of flash over efficiency ; ten does not.

Hearing stories of personal artists. This early romantic pe- riod poem from the famous volume Lyrical Ballads follows the life path of some- one who violates the natural world. The mariner shoots it with a crossbow, thoughtlessly. We are only halfway environmental issues. The humanities can demonstrate how to make these confessions personal and motiva- through the poem, but we tional. They place spe- own health and survival.

We The Art and Power of Storytelling of avoiding their own collision with hear his tale as he retells it to an anon- The poet and writer can teach us how to the conflict. A crisis often crushes the ymous guest on the way to a wedding. Poetry, self-acceptance and wisdom—for them the wedding; he leaves stunned, con- literature, drama, and other disciplines and vicariously for us. Appar- stories that produce immediate emotion- confessing an environmental abuse than ently he needs time to recover before www.

He may not go off on an expedi- are to poison her in the single-minded Simons, who lost her job for going pub- tion to save albatrosses, but he may pursuit of some short-term objective.

Such is the effect of writers have inspired others to reflect But it took several years and the per- powerful stories of personal transgres- on their own transgressions. Indeed, sonal confessions in Blackfish to set the sion and transformation. Black- telling strategies to confess publicly fish revealed the lingering self-imposed their acts against the natural world. The Blackfish Effect silence of the trainers, who felt loyalty In the book A Sand County Alma- Documentaries are powerful modern to the whales and wanted to protect nac: And Sketches Here and There, which platforms for storytelling.

These films them. Many trainers did not at first ac- sold more than two million copies and have helped inspire the public to push knowledge that simply by training and helped establish the modern conser- for environmental regulations, includ- performing with the whales, they were vation movement, renowned ecologist ing better protection of animals such committing their own transgressive Aldo Leopold described how he once as elephants and great apes.

In one acts. The trainers also express preciation of the importance of each in- Blackfish captures the shift of anger at members of management terconnected creature in an ecosystem. It announced this year that it will phase out all orca shows over the next few years, and stop breeding the animals in captivity. Social Media Confessions Social media are the newest platforms for storytelling and may be the most imageBROKER Alamy Stock Photo promising ones yet for inspiring envi- Documentaries are powerful platforms for confessing environmental transgressions.

In Black- ronmental action through personal con- fish , former SeaWorld trainers describe inhumane treatment of killer whales and come fessions. Here, killer whales perform at sive audience. Social media also back, flattening and killing it. And, im- careless pursuits. The need for environmental action is portantly, social media have a long his- Then we built slingshots, strong too pressing for us to wait any longer tory of encouraging public confessions.

These stories are the miss- feature that could be employed for envi- BBs for ammunition. The mem- biocidal mania. If we all reach out and uses, such as admitting romantic crush- ory of the squashed innocent blue share our stories using whichever plat- es, but similar pages could be created to jay kept my reckless animal-killing form works for each of us, we can learn post collections of ecological violations ardor in check.

I take my shift of from each other and usher in a new age and their aftermaths. The move from personal mental missteps. It also should be our own. My own confes- We, like Coleridge, need to find a confes- Coleridge, S. New York, dium is readily available, even if that is Routledge. In my boyhood I roamed the New a face to face conversation—or a poem.

Kolbert, E. New York: Henry Holt and postwar suburb. The woods pro- led my trip to the Channel Islands teach- Company. A Sand County Almanac: And maining forest, swamps, and creek. Sketches Here and There.

New York: Oxford University Press. New York: Grove Press. Strengthening animal welfare specimens home in jars, boxes, fishery by being careful to use what they and protecting oceans and marine animals, and bags. Los Angeles Times March Henry Petroski T he electrical engineer Charles P.

What most caught paperweights. Even users of the earliest endary as a special consultant my eye in looking at this photo recently, forms of books, such as papyrus scrolls, on the staff of the General Elec- however, are the assorted objects that would have been grateful for any object tric Research Laboratory in Schenectady, are sitting on the books and papers, pre- handy to keep a rolled-out scroll from New York, making seminal contribu- sumably to hold them in place lest a returning to its naturally curled-up tions to the transmission of alternating sudden breeze carry them away.

An iconic perweights would have been welcome photo see page shows him working When the scroll and the appurtenances in the study or library. Among the items on the objects of near adoration, No sophisticated engineering was re- quired to make early paperweights. It has been said that Steinmetz double as a paperweight from proto- kept rocks in his canoe to weigh down contact with them.

On of a brick. Just about anything with any makeshift objects. But in places where the table are the pencil box, open books, heft can be used as a paperweight, but the scroll and the book were elevated papers, and a slide rule, suggesting that the most commonly employed things to objects of near adoration in their he may have been making less-precise do have to satisfy a set of criteria: They own right—such as in monasteries— calculations than he was making in the do not take up much room on a desk, paraphernalia were developed of a canoe.

Therefore, tory, even though signs declaring no weights, usually have a certain attrac- in old woodcuts of scholars, monks, tiveness, decorativeness, and commem- and scribes studying and copying such Henry Petroski is the Aleksandar S.

Vesic orative or sentimental value to them. His most recently pub- purpose, it little matters what it looks ing weighted cords or strings. Address: Box , Durham, NC As the closet-size study paperweights, but I have accumulated is about what my experience has grew into a full-fledged room of its own, a number of them over the years and taught me to expect of a standard desk capable of including a commodious keep several of them scattered about paperweight of American design. And although mine may not Most of the bases are made of marble, for multiple piles of papers that were be a representative sample, it does pro- but one nonmarble example stands kept in place with increasingly decora- vide me with visual and tactile data out.

This one is from Curtin University tive paperweights made of more deli- points by which to test my narrative of Technology in Perth, Australia; it cate materials such as glass and ceramic. At about 4 ounces, the Curtin weight is not nearly as heavy as the marble ones, but it certainly will hold down papers under even a moderate gust of wind or the steady blow of an electric fan. Some of the objects that I use as pa- perweights do not have that function as their principal one. Such adaptation is not an unusual phenomenon: Con- sumers often enlist things made for one purpose for another unrelated one.

One such object usually close by on my desk is a map magnifier. It consists of a hemispherical acrylic prism or lens cra- dled in a handsome wooden base. It was pre- sented to me after a talk I gave at a meeting organized by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; when aided by the weight of a glass of water, it is well suited to holding down papers in the stiffest breeze. We then investigated the pathways and molecules associated with intrahepatic THBS2 levels.

Weighted correlation network analysis 23 identified a gene network in which THBS2 was connected to 98 genes, including 11 collagen genes Supporting Fig. S11 and Supporting Table S6. S13 A,B. S15 A,B. Number of patients at risk is shown at each observation period. Liver cancer and decompensated cirrhotic events such as esophageal varix, ascites, and HE are important lethal outcomes in patients with NAFLD.

We therefore retrospectively analyzed the incidence of liver cancer and decompensated cirrhotic events the new emergence of esophageal varix, ascites, and HE for patients with NAFLD who were followed up under a standardized schedule the median observation period was 52 months. The cumulative incidence rates of liver cancer at 2 years and 4 years were 5.

The cumulative incidence rates of decompensated events at 2 years and 4 years were 5. Interestingly, unsupervised clustering of transcriptome data successfully discriminated NASH from NAFL, strongly suggesting the molecular differences between these two disease entities. Pathway analysis also identified two major pathological characteristics, hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, in the livers of patients with NASH, suggesting the potential usefulness of omics approaches to identify patients with NASH patients.

This considerable overlap strengthens the validity of our transcriptome analysis. Moreover, we present data from patients derived from Japan and several European countries, making THBS2 a much more plausible hepatic biomarker with greater generalizability. Recently, Kimura et al. Regarding NAFLD disease pathogenesis, it is clear that the processes of liver cell damage, inflammation, and fibrogenesis are tightly linked.

Indeed, THBS2 is strongly associated with fibrogenesis type I collagen synthesis but also showed an association with hepatocyte ballooning and liver inflammation. These myofibroblasts secrete ECM proteins such as type I collagen, leading to fibrosis progression. Recently, Chen et al. COL4A4 encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, a fragment of which is already used in the clinic as a reliable serum marker for liver fibrosis.

A strong association of its hepatic and serum levels with disease activity and fibrosis stage in patients with NAFLD has been shown by several groups. Potential conflict of interest: Dr. He consults, has active research collaborations, and received grants from AstraZeneca, Novartis, and Pfizer.

He received grants from Vertex. He received royalties from Elsevier. Hepatology Baltimore, Md. Published online Aug Daly , 2 Quentin M. Ann K. Quentin M. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Tetsuo Takehara, Email: pj. Corresponding author. Liver Histology For all subjects, diagnoses were established histologically through liver biopsy specimens. Open in a separate window. Author Contributions K. Supporting information Supplementary Material Click here for additional data file.

Acknowledgment The authors thank M. Imai for the technical and experimental help. Cotter TG, Rinella M. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease the state of the disease. Noninvasive assessment of liver disease in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Sampling variability of liver biopsy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatic gene expression profiles differentiate presymptomatic patients with mild versus severe nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Comparison of gene expression patterns between mouse models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and liver tissues from patients.

Gene expression predicts histological severity and reveals distinct molecular profiles of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Sci Rep ; 9 Transcriptional network analysis implicates altered hepatic immune function in NASH development and resolution. Transcriptomic profiling across the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease spectrum reveals gene signatures for steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Sci Transl Med ; 12 :eaba Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a spectrum of clinical and pathological severity. Contemp Clin Trials ; 98 A subcellular map of the human proteome.

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Apr 25,  · From Japanese ? (yuki) meaning "happiness" or ? (yuki) meaning "snow". It can also come from ? (yu) meaning "reason, cause" combined with ? (ki) meaning "valuable" or ? (ki) meaning "chronicle". Other kanji or kanji combinations are also possible. What is the meaning of the name Yuki? The name Yuki is primarily a gender-neutral name of Japanese origin that means Snow Or Lucky. People who like the name Yuki also like: Henry, Adrian, Haru, Dante, Matthew, Axel, Luke, Yui, Sakura, Luna, Alexandra, Wendy, Aiko, Zoe Names like Yuki. The Yuki (also known as Yukiah) are an indigenous people of California, whose traditional territory is around Round Valley, Mendocino County. Today they are enrolled members of the Round Valley Indian Tribes of the Round Valley Reservation. Before the arrival of Europeans, the Yuki called themselves "Ukomno'om," meaning "valley people.".