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Key principles of organizational change when implementing technologies and innovations in healthcare

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The logics of healthcare: in quality improvement work. Hogan R. Personality and the fate of organizations.

Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum; Berry L, Curry P. Nursing workload and patient care. Accessed 10 October Change fatigue: development and initial validation of a new measure. Ead H. Change fatigue in health care professionals. J Perianesth Nurs. McMillan K, Perron A.

Nurses amidst change: the concept of change fatigue offers an alternative perspective on organizational change. Policy Polit Nurs Pract. Epub Apr 2.

Organisational change and employee burnout: the moderating effects of support and job control. Saf Sci. Dahl MS. Organizational change and employee stress. Manag Sci. Miller D. Successful change leaders: what makes them?

What do they do that is different? J Change Manage. Why people stay: using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover. Acad Manag J. Hill LA. Managing change. Boston: Harvard Enterprise Faculty Publishing; J Appl Behav Sci. Employee cynicism and resistance to organizational change. J Bus Psychol. Understanding and managing cynicism about organizational change. Acad Manage Perspect. Bouckenooghe D. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis.

Qual Health Res. Grama B. Cynicism in organizational change. Readiness for organizational change: a longitudinal study of workplace, psychological and behavioural correlates. J Occup Organ Psychol. On the receiving end: Sensemaking, emotion, and assessments of an organizational change initiated by others. Stensmyren H. The challenge of transforming organizations. Transforming organizations.

Young GJ. Fernandez S, Rainey HG. Managing successful organizational change in the public sector. Public Admin Rev. Subjective perceptions of organizational change and employee resistance to change: direct and mediated relationships with employee well-being. Br J Manage. Weiner BJ. A theory of organizational readiness for change. Implement Sci. Implementing performance-based program budgeting: a system-dynamics perspective.

Implementation and public policy. Lanham: University Press of America; Statutory coherence policy implementation: the case of family planning. J Public Policy.

Reay T, Hinings CR. Managing the rivalry of competing institutional logics. Organ Stud. The impact of management on medical professionalism: a review. Sociol Health Illn. Freidson E. Professionalism: the third logic. Cambridge: Polity Press; Gabbay J, LeMay A. Mindlines: making sense of evidence in practice. Br J Gen Pract. Beck M, Melo S. Quality management and managerialism in healthcare: a critical historical survey. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; Noordegraaf M.

Present-day professionalism in ambiguous public domains. Admin Soc. Wilensky H. The professionalization of everyone? Am J Sociol. Nurs Inq. Halldin J. Socialmedicinsk tidskrift. Freedom to do what you are told: senior management team autonomy in an NHS acute trust. Public Admin. McGivern G, Ferlie E. Playing tick-box games: interrelating defences in professional appraisal. Hum Relat. Zaremba M. Agerberg M. Stockholm: Regeringskansliet; Debate article. Dagens Nyheter. Sample size in qualitative interview studies: guided by information power.

Download references. The authors would like to thank all the participating physicians, registered nurses and assistant nurses who participated in the interviews. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. All analysed the data. PN drafted the manuscript, but it was reviewed and critically revised for important intellectual content by all authors.

All authors read and gave final approval of the version of the manuscript submitted for publication. Correspondence to Per Nilsen. All the participants gave their written and oral consent to participate in the interviews. The study was performed according to World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

To maintain the principle of non-maleficence, the participants were guaranteed confidentiality, which was taken into account when reporting the findings through abstracted findings presented at the group level. In the interviews, the researchers were aware of power issues, in that an interview is not a conversation between two equal individuals.

The interview time was taken into careful consideration. The participants were given opportunity to reflect on what they said in the interviews, and time was also available for the participants to ask questions. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Reprints and Permissions. Nilsen, P. Characteristics of successful changes in health care organizations: an interview study with physicians, registered nurses and assistant nurses.

Download citation. Received : 19 November Accepted : 14 February Published : 27 February Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Research article Open Access Published: 27 February Characteristics of successful changes in health care organizations: an interview study with physicians, registered nurses and assistant nurses Per Nilsen 1 , Ida Seing 2 , Carin Ericsson 1 , 3 , Sarah A. Abstract Background Health care organizations are constantly changing as a result of technological advancements, ageing populations, changing disease patterns, new discoveries for the treatment of diseases and political reforms and policy initiatives.

Methods The study was based on semi-structured interviews with 30 health care professionals: 11 physicians, 12 registered nurses and seven assistant nurses employed in the Swedish health care system. Results The analysis yielded three categories concerning characteristics of successful changes: having the opportunity to influence the change; being prepared for the change; valuing the change. Conclusions Organizational changes in health care are more likely to succeed when health care professionals have the opportunity to influence the change, feel prepared for the change and recognize the value of the change, including perceiving the benefit of the change for patients.

Background The only constant in health care organizations, as the saying goes, is change. Methods Study setting, design and participants Study data come from interviews with Swedish health care professionals physicians, registered nurses, assistant nurses. Table 1 Participant characteristics Full size table. Having the opportunity to influence the change The health care professionals emphasized the importance of having the opportunity to influence organizational changes that are implemented.

Discussion Change is pervasive in modern health care. Conclusions In conclusion, organizational changes in health care are more likely to succeed when health care professionals have the opportunity to influence the change, feel prepared for the change and recognize the value of the change, including perceiving the benefit of the change for patients. Availability of data and materials All interview data analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Birken US: United States. Google Scholar SKL. Google Scholar Gray M. Google Scholar Gadolin C. Google Scholar Hogan R. Article Google Scholar Ead H. Article Google Scholar Miller D. Google Scholar Hill LA.

Article Google Scholar Bouckenooghe D. Article Google Scholar Stensmyren H. Google Scholar Young GJ. Google Scholar Noordegraaf M. Article Google Scholar Wilensky H.

Article Google Scholar Zaremba M. In this view, individual acceptance of change within the healthcare context resulted being undeveloped and offers rooms for further analyses.

Healthcare organizations are in an ongoing state of change forcing to convert themselves incrementally or in radical ways. Organizational change constitutes a complex phenomenon that develops in any sector. Accordingly, the paper is built upon two sequentially levels of analysis. First, the paper collects the overall scientific production concerning organizational change topic basis on the citations network. This allows for outlining main ongoing theoretical developments and detecting emerging research strands.

This preliminary step is critical to gaining an insight into the depth of scientific production in the healthcare context. Second, the work groups additional contributions extant in the literature but not included in the citation network. The analysis is accomplished by selecting papers based on the occurrence of author keywords within the original set of retrieved papers.

Thereby, this stage of analysis draws further conclusions on the existing body of knowledge concerning to organizational change in the healthcare context. The dynamic perspective, which the method provides, eases the detection even of literature gaps not considered to date in the existing body of research production, due to the heterogeneous contributions. Thereby, medical professionals can manage their patients without considering their peers throughout their activities.

Hence, professional bureaucracy has developed drawing upon a bottom-up decision-making arrangement. Consistent with Mintzberg , 40 managing such an organizational configuration implies facing three distinct managerial issues. To this respect, what should be considered is the role of the professional community in healthcare organizations. At the beginning, related to the topic, the set of chosen keywords does not include specific terms. The query was performed as displayed below in Figure 1.

SLNA method contains the analysis of bibliometric networks based on the paper retrieved, such as citations and keywords analysis, as one of its components Strozzi et al, Vos Viewer was adopted for the preliminary analysis, in terms of network visualization, for creating the input file for Pajek, and for implementing the analysis of the keywords.

CNA is a method based on citations, which are the links between papers nodes in a citation network. The isolated nodes cannot be involved in the analysis, and the citation analysis can be performed only when components are connected.

The first step in performing network analysis is extracting the isolated nodes, uploaded in VOS Viewer software. The bibliometric network showed only documents out of that received at least one citation, displayed in the Pajek tool. Firstly, the bibliometric network was adjusted by changing the direction of knowledge flow ie, inverting the direction of arrows from cited to citing papers, that is, from the oldest paper to the most recent one.

Secondarily, the analysis revealed that only out of documents were connected. CNA connected components in this network were 4. The first component included papers, whilst the remaining components were composed of 26, 10 and 4 papers, respectively. Given the small size of the last identified components ie, 26, 10 and 4 compared with the first one ie, papers , only the component with nodes was analysed.

Figure 2 shows the first biggest connected component. The quantification of the transversal weight of the citation was executed. A cut-off value of 0. Figure 3 depicts the main path for the biggest connected component. To outline a framework as comprehensive as possible on the subject, only the use of citations to trace the coordinates can be limiting.

Some papers are not included in the analysis because other ones did not cite them, despite their contents were significant or they may not be selected since they were published recently, therefore they did not still receive a sufficient number of citations.

This suggests that the CNA should be combined with other tools such as the Global Citation Score analysis and keyword analysis. In the following, the citation network analysis is designed to trace the active research streams on the topic of organizational change and to have a preliminary assessment of the extent to which these patterns are present even among the studies dealing with organizational change in the healthcare field. In this view, a first-order analysis based on the main path associated with the biggest connected component may be useful to detect general streams and gain an overall picture.

The main path sheds light on the articles that refer to prior papers, which act as hubs concerning later works. Global Citation Network Score Analysis is a tool to detect seminal or recent breakthrough studies 51 that were not selected in the citation network but received a significant amount of citations in the whole Scopus Database.

In that sense, these works are however relevant in the field. VOSviewer maps the position of items by applying a function to be minimized which depends on a similarity measure between items defined as follows:. The measures the co-occurrence of keywords and in the same document; and express the expected number of co-occurrences of and , on the hypothesis that the co-occurrences of and are statistically independent.

Therefore, this stage contributes to a complete preliminary understanding of which literature strands are being developed on organizational change topic within the healthcare field. A first research stream dwells on the factors enabling individuals to be prepared for specific change initiatives. Normative-reeducative change strategies and work environment steering towards learning culture demonstrate to be facilitators. A second literature flow deepens personal beliefs that individuals develop about change initiatives.

The third flow of literature proposes the adoption of a multi-level approach to organizational change and places emphasis on the change outcomes. Merging the individual-focused micro perspective and the organizational-oriented macro perspective, with inflows from meso-level theory 68 may contribute to obtaining a comprehensive vision on organizational change. Change type and change method should be converging to attain the intended change outcome. Consistent with past studies, this step of literature review through CNA shows that works emphasized the need to give emphasis on individual perceptions towards change.

The research trajectory appeared to be unexplored in healthcare. Interestingly, a comprehensive framework involving micro-meso and macro perspective to evaluate change actions and the importance of change outcome was found to be emerging trends only in the general literature on organisational change. The use of keyword analysis is intended to confirm or to extend this initial finding on existing research streams related to the topic of organisational change in healthcare. The first cluster includes approaches to manage change organization within the production context, 91 by illustrating applications in terms of product development 85 and impact on supply chain management.

The third cluster enlarges supportive and boosting tools of organizational change, containing IT applications such as a monitoring system for organizational development activities, 96 team-based simulations improving readiness for change in university setting, 73 and as a means for gaining business-IT alignment.

The fourth cluster encompasses the key role of participation for learning within change, even debating a mix of learning styles to sustain successfully organizational change initiative in the healthcare context. The fifth cluster copes with the performance management issue, by soliciting a change in organizational values to enhance a successful performance management reform. This is consistent with the result debated in the citation network analysis. The cluster is mainly composed of 6 papers.

The sixth cluster focuses on sustainability change initiatives in Higher Education Institutions. The cluster is mainly composed of 9 papers.

The relationship between innovation and change in the healthcare context should be explored. Both external and internal factors trigger the need for change in healthcare organizations.

This is leading to a compulsory changing in the healthcare organizational framework. Likewise, the need to make health processes more efficient, for instance, forms another triggering factor, the inside one, for organizational change.

Therefore, the organizational change issue should be investigated by bearing in mind these multiple boosts to changing. This supports the need to investigate deeply the concept of change and innovation in a healthcare setting, by seeking to outline the boundaries of organizational change and innovation. In particular, the analysis should start investigating the issue by emphasizing on the fact that micro-context should not be assumed simply as a backcloth to action.

The resistance to organizational change initiative arises when professional logic comes into contrast with the management one. Thus, it becomes a priority to seek a new concept of leadership where the recipients of the change can themselves be those who manage the leaders with the possibility to hinder or sustain proactively their leadership.

As the work by Augl 76 pointed out in cluster number 5 of keyword analysis, the health system might be regarded as a set of social systems where organizations may be considered as communication systems.

In this regard, the author suggested a new approach to change management by modifying the current communication paths to contextual collaboration. The manufacturing context and the healthcare context. The former analyses the issue of organisational change also concerning supply chain management; the latter pays attention to the attitude of the clinician towards change initiatives linked to the introduction of new technology. Of the remaining clusters, some of them relate the topic of change to the adoption of support systems IT applications cluster 3 or support strategies formal and informal communication cluster 2; participation cluster 4 for the implementation of change; further clusters tackle the topic of change as a tool to improve performance management cluster 5 or combine it with sustainable change initiatives and the concept of innovation.

With the analysis carried out so far, a growing interest in the most recent literature on the individual-change relationship emerges ie, The subject is developed by scholars from different perspectives. The contributions discussed in this paper clearly define the need to deal with acceptance of change from the perspective of the individual. The extensive analysis reported on the topic allows contextualizing the organizational change initiatives in the healthcare world, where the individual-change relationship is central and can offer additional ideas on the profile of change recipients.

The research line takes a position on change recipients, by paying attention to the effects that organizational change causes on persons or, in other words, on the psychological aspects of the organizational change. Change outcome and organizational performance in change initiative appear to be not adequately explored. The work see 58 illustrates only conceptual models.

Studies aimed at identifying and testing empirically specific performance measures in the organizational change context appear to be missing. A summary of the results is provided in the table number 4 Table 4. Cluster 8 provides some insights on the state of art in the healthcare research field. Beyond case studies, the topic becomes relevant only relative to the spreading of digital services in the care system.

Other studies eg, 62 , retrieved in the previous step, describe a potential stream of organizational change issues in the healthcare context. Notably, these works address change management only concerning the negative health impact for the individual, without paying attention to the individual behaviour change. Moreover, the papers available do not point out change management in the specific context of professionalized organizations. Therefore, studies aimed at investigating the nature of change that characterizes the healthcare professionalized organizations are needed.

In summary, the literature reviewed informed us that three potential streams were not yet fully explored. Change management in the context of healthcare organizations, performance evaluations and innovation-organizational change relationship was the most evident gaps found out. Nevertheless, the present work debates individual-level perspective on the change as a prominent dimension to tackle in designing change initiatives, albeit individual and organizational issues related to change should not be viewed as detached.

This stimulates to set aside a polarized perspective on organizational change. The performed review traces a clear step in the production research on the subject. Especially in the healthcare context, the literature reviewed highlighted an evident imbalance of scientific production in favour of individual effects of changing. Technology and organization appear to be a double face of the change, being strictly related, but there is not a common perspective in defining the role of enabler for those variables.

In this respect, further research should address the above-mentioned issue in the organizational change context. Likewise, a specific investigation on organizational change and the healthcare field is encouraged. Healthcare organizations ought to adopt change models fitting their specific needs of change. Overall literature stream traces a systemic perspective, whereby an individual, organizational and expected outcome of change should be milestones of any organizational change action.

New technologies are speeding up the demographic changeover and are increasing the economic burden for the NHS. The converging outcome lies on strengthen the equity, the value and the sustainability of healthcare.

Exploratory studies may be useful. Research on change management is gaining momentum and offering many stimuli. Therefore, the development of research lines to deepen the topic is important, especially in the healthcare field. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jan 9; Accepted Apr This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms.

Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4. Abstract Background Change is an ongoing process in any organizations. Methodology This review adopted a quantitative-based method that employs jointly systematic literature review and bibliographic network analysis.

Results The study showed four main findings. Conclusion Human dimension is the primary criticality to be managed to impede failure of the re-organizational path. Keywords: change management, organizational change, literature review, Systematic Literature Network Analysis, healthcare. Introduction Healthcare organizations are in an ongoing state of change forcing to convert themselves incrementally or in radical ways.

RQ2: What is the state-of-the-art of change management in the healthcare field? Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Keywords Analysis Global Citation Network Score Analysis is a tool to detect seminal or recent breakthrough studies 51 that were not selected in the citation network but received a significant amount of citations in the whole Scopus Database.

Figure 4. Clusters from Keywords Analysis The first cluster includes approaches to manage change organization within the production context, 91 by illustrating applications in terms of product development 85 and impact on supply chain management. The Importance of Individuals in Organizational Change With the analysis carried out so far, a growing interest in the most recent literature on the individual-change relationship emerges ie, Discussion The research line takes a position on change recipients, by paying attention to the effects that organizational change causes on persons or, in other words, on the psychological aspects of the organizational change.

Conclusion The performed review traces a clear step in the production research on the subject. Healthcare organizations receive multiple external and internal stimuli of change. Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.

References 1. American Medical Association. AMA principles for physician employment. Accessed May7, Nord J Work Life Stud. Creating readiness for organizational change. Hum Relat. Berlin J, Kastberg G. Stockholm: Liber; The emergence of organizational change. The Routledge Companion to Organizational Change. Routledge; Brizzi L, Cava F.

Roma: Carocci; Burnes B. Kurt Lewin and the planned approach to change: a re-appraisal. J Manag Stud. Collaborative networked organizations concepts and practice in manufacturing enterprises. Comput Ind Eng. Comerio N, Strozzi F. Tourism and its economic impact: a literature review using bibliometric tools.

Tour Econ. Croce D, Mazzone A. Ital J Med. Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Future of medical engagement. Aust Health Rev. Are we nearly there yet? A study of the English National Health Service as professional bureaucracies.

J Health Organ Manag. Bibliometric cartography of information retrieval research by using co-word analysis. Inf Process Manag. Understanding change and innovation in healthcare settings: reconceptualizing the active role of context. J Chang Manag. Elston T, MacCarthaigh M.

Sharing services, saving money? Five risks to cost-saving when organizations share services. Public Money Manag. Driving for successful change processes in healthcare by putting staff at the wheel. The nonspread of innovations: the mediating role of professionals. Acad Manag J. Knowledge to action? The implications for policy and practice of research on innovation processes.

Organizing and Reorganizing. Organizational Behaviour in Health Care. London: Palgrave Macmillan; Patient-centred care is a way of doing things: how healthcare employees conceptualize patient-centred care. Health Expectations. Resistance to change: the rest of the story.

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The multidisciplinary research team was a strength of the study, because it allowed different perspectives on the issue of changes in health care.

Regardless, this enabled us to use quotations from many different participants, adding transparency and trustworthiness to the findings. While many findings of the study are in line with existing research on organizational changes, no previous study has identified this particular triad of interdependent characteristics.

The study provides important knowledge for health care organizations to plan and implement changes with better chances of being successful. In conclusion, organizational changes in health care are more likely to succeed when health care professionals have the opportunity to influence the change, feel prepared for the change and recognize the value of the change, including perceiving the benefit of the change for patients.

Although changes in health care organizations are inevitable, there are more or less effective ways to carry out changes. Our results provide important implications for health care organizations concerning how changes in health care can be planned, implemented and managed to increase the chances that they will be supported by health care professionals, which is crucial for successful changes. All interview data analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

The impact of new public management on efficiency: an analysis of Madrid's hospitals. Health Policy. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Drotz E, Poksinska B. Lean in healthcare from employees' perspectives. J Health Org Manage. Article Google Scholar. Perceptions of organizational change: a stress and coping perspective. J Appl Psychol. Organizational change, health, and sick leave among health care employees: a longitudinal study measuring stress markers, individual, and work site factors.

Work Stress. Continuity and coordination of care. A practice brief to support implementation of the WHO Framework on integrated people-centred health services. Geneva: World Health Organization; Google Scholar. Stockholm: Sveriges kommuner och landsting SKL ; Gray M. Evidence-based healthcare and public health.

Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; Pollitt C, Bouckaert G. Public management reform: a comparative analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Gadolin C. The logics of healthcare: in quality improvement work. Hogan R. Personality and the fate of organizations. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum; Berry L, Curry P. Nursing workload and patient care. Accessed 10 October Change fatigue: development and initial validation of a new measure.

Ead H. Change fatigue in health care professionals. J Perianesth Nurs. McMillan K, Perron A. Nurses amidst change: the concept of change fatigue offers an alternative perspective on organizational change.

Policy Polit Nurs Pract. Epub Apr 2. Organisational change and employee burnout: the moderating effects of support and job control.

Saf Sci. Dahl MS. Organizational change and employee stress. Manag Sci. Miller D. Successful change leaders: what makes them? What do they do that is different? J Change Manage. Why people stay: using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover. Acad Manag J. Hill LA. Managing change. Boston: Harvard Enterprise Faculty Publishing; J Appl Behav Sci. Employee cynicism and resistance to organizational change.

J Bus Psychol. Understanding and managing cynicism about organizational change. Acad Manage Perspect. Bouckenooghe D. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis.

Qual Health Res. Grama B. Cynicism in organizational change. Readiness for organizational change: a longitudinal study of workplace, psychological and behavioural correlates. J Occup Organ Psychol. On the receiving end: Sensemaking, emotion, and assessments of an organizational change initiated by others.

Stensmyren H. The challenge of transforming organizations. Transforming organizations. Young GJ. Fernandez S, Rainey HG. Managing successful organizational change in the public sector. Public Admin Rev. Subjective perceptions of organizational change and employee resistance to change: direct and mediated relationships with employee well-being.

Br J Manage. Weiner BJ. A theory of organizational readiness for change. Implement Sci. Implementing performance-based program budgeting: a system-dynamics perspective. Implementation and public policy. Lanham: University Press of America; Statutory coherence policy implementation: the case of family planning. J Public Policy. Reay T, Hinings CR. Managing the rivalry of competing institutional logics. Organ Stud. The impact of management on medical professionalism: a review. Sociol Health Illn.

Freidson E. Professionalism: the third logic. Cambridge: Polity Press; Gabbay J, LeMay A. Mindlines: making sense of evidence in practice. Br J Gen Pract. Beck M, Melo S. Quality management and managerialism in healthcare: a critical historical survey. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; Noordegraaf M. Present-day professionalism in ambiguous public domains.

Admin Soc. Wilensky H. The professionalization of everyone? Am J Sociol. Nurs Inq. Halldin J. Socialmedicinsk tidskrift. Freedom to do what you are told: senior management team autonomy in an NHS acute trust. Public Admin. McGivern G, Ferlie E. Playing tick-box games: interrelating defences in professional appraisal.

Hum Relat. Zaremba M. Agerberg M. Stockholm: Regeringskansliet; Debate article. Dagens Nyheter. Sample size in qualitative interview studies: guided by information power.

Download references. The authors would like to thank all the participating physicians, registered nurses and assistant nurses who participated in the interviews. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. All analysed the data.

PN drafted the manuscript, but it was reviewed and critically revised for important intellectual content by all authors. All authors read and gave final approval of the version of the manuscript submitted for publication. Correspondence to Per Nilsen. All the participants gave their written and oral consent to participate in the interviews. The study was performed according to World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

To maintain the principle of non-maleficence, the participants were guaranteed confidentiality, which was taken into account when reporting the findings through abstracted findings presented at the group level. In the interviews, the researchers were aware of power issues, in that an interview is not a conversation between two equal individuals.

The interview time was taken into careful consideration. The participants were given opportunity to reflect on what they said in the interviews, and time was also available for the participants to ask questions.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Reprints and Permissions. Nilsen, P. Characteristics of successful changes in health care organizations: an interview study with physicians, registered nurses and assistant nurses.

Download citation. Received : 19 November Accepted : 14 February Published : 27 February Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Give them opportunities to be hands-on and show their commitment throughout the organization. Some questions to consider when developing your stakeholder engagement plan include:. Stakeholders include everyone impacted by the change.

The stakeholder engagement plan must also provide appropriate structures for capturing the voice of the end-user employee. From initial planning through implementation, inclusion of end-user stakeholders will ensure the right tools and business processes are designed and built, resulting in a better employee experience and increased adoption of the change.

By building excitement and awareness among employees and helping to break down organizational silos, communication forms the backbone of a unified project team. Messages must be relevant, tailored to different groups, and timely. They must be consistent, increase project visibility, and build excitement.

Communication plays such a key role in level-setting, providing transparency, bridging gaps, and encouraging adoption which requires its own strategy. Before you begin, consider your communication goals. Think about different media options and creative ways to connect with your organization outside of email.

Leverage blogs, intranet sites, and social applications to help start conversations, share knowledge, and build a community. These platforms are impactful to a project because they facilitate effective two-way communications-a powerful technique for breaking down silos and barriers and building excitement.

It can be a forum for employees to ask questions, share ideas, provide insights, and collaborate with other members of the organization. There is a multitude of collaboration tools available, including Microsoft Teams, SharePoint, Slack and intranet sites. Providing such capabilities to employees promotes empowerment and involvement throughout the program, which creates more positive connections.

Establishing the right metrics enables you to communicate, coach and direct the behaviors which will drive your desired business outcomes. There are three focus areas to consider when deciding what to measure for a system implementation:. Each focus area provides insights into key adoption levels that indicate whether the system is being used to its full capacity or to highlight where additional support may be needed.

Building upon the knowledge provided through the project, you need to ensure the right techniques and measures are in place to execute a robust training program. The components that will be key in designing the training program are:. How should organizations wrap up all the hard work to execute change initiatives-ensuring employees received the proper training, have access to self-service resources, understand what is expected of them, and have the support they need?

Your change management plan should include post-live assessments to evaluate behavioral shifts, system effectiveness, and what is working well at 30 days and beyond and identifying trends and gaps. With any system implementation, there will be enhancements, improvements, and updates. Each of these will impact your organization and will need to be taken into consideration when building your ongoing change activities. Before you begin a system implementation, a transformation program, or any initiative involving change for your organization, remember to integrate the six key principles of successful change management: Leadership , Inclusion, Communication, Metrics , Enablement , and Reinforcement.

Guided by these principles, your change initiative will deliver more impactful and sustainable results and establish a good precedent for future changes in the organization. Learn more about our change management services.

Share This Article. Category: Change Management. Change is hard. Successful change requires a people-centric approach. Listed below is each principle and its role in solving the challenge of change in more detail. Leadership Leaders must be visibly supportive of change.

Some questions to consider when developing your stakeholder engagement plan include: How will leaders participate in video messaging? How will leaders be involved in system demonstrations? What key content will leaders share in monthly stakeholder meetings? What information can leaders share in town halls? What information can leaders share in departmental communications?